A 2013 study by the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Department entitled Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic? revealed that homemade face masks, constructed out of household materials were still effective in reducing aerosol transmission of droplet-spread communicable diseases. The study involved 21 healthy volunteers; 12 men and 9 women aged between 20 and 44 years of age. The results indicated that all of the materials used, which included a cotton t-shirt, scarf, tea-towel, vacuum cleaner bag and pillowcase showed some capability to block the microbial aerosol challenges. The most significant factor was not the material the homemade face mask was constructed out of, instead, it was the fit of the mask itself and the underlying actions of the wearer.
Masks are not recommended for children 2 and under!
Free Downloadable Face Mask Pattern (from craft passion) in various options. Please click to download and print separately.
This article is intended for both those with have little to no skills with sewing as well as our more experienced readers. It is also readily made to to complete with or without the use of a sewing machine.
|“Jesse Mask (Best Fit)||Template|
|W/Pocket (3/8″ seam allowance)||Template||Template||Template||Template|
|W/out Pocket (1/4″ seam allowance)||Template||Template||Template||Template|
|W/out seam allowance|
Decide which type and size you want to sew, choose the correct pattern from the list, download and print out the template of Face Mask Pattern separately.
Don’t scale the printing and DON’T print to fit the paper either, it is in letter size paper (8.5″ x 11″) so you should have no problem printing it in 100% size. There is a 2″ scale marking for you to check if you are printing it in the right size.
Cut out the pattern of your size.
[IMPORTANT: Don’t print the pattern from the browser, the size might not correct. Please open the pdf pattern in Adobe Reader or Adobe Pro and print the actual size (100% scale) from there, DO NOT set to “print to fit paper”.]
You may trace the pattern out from your monitor. Download the templates and open them in Adobe Reader. Zoom the template till the 2″ guide measures 2″ on your ruler, set the screen to the highest brightness. Place a piece of white paper on the monitor and trace the outline with a pen or a marker.
Fold the main fabric into halve with the wrong side facing each other, pin the paper pattern onto the double-layered fabric. Cut the fabric with 1/4″ allowance, except the ear side. Cut the fabric at the ear side with 1″ seam allowance (1.5″ if you are using t-shirt yarn as the head tie).
Insert the tracing paper between the layer, trace sewing lines with tracing wheel.
Remove pins and paper pattern, get set to sew.
NOTE: If you are using templates that already have seam allowances included, you do not need to add any more seam allowance. The same applies to the lining in the next step.
With the ever increasing requirement for ‘social distancing’, there are essentials such as food, cleaning supplies, personal care and medicine, to name a few. We know that to slow the spread of the novel coronavirus or COVID-19, we should limit our exposure to people, cover our coughs/sneezes, and avoid touching our face. If you are feeling well and certain that you have not been exposed to or tested negative for the COVID-19 virus. Here are some strategies to consider before you leave home, while shopping, and when you return home.
Know Your Symptoms:
|Cough||Common (Dry)||Common (Dry)||Common||Common|
|Fatigue||Common||Common||Some Cases||Uncommon / None|
|Fever||Common||Common||Some Cases||Uncommon / None|
|Shortness of Breath||Common||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None|
|Aches and Pains||Some Cases||Common||Some Cases||Uncommon / None|
|Diarrhea||Some Cases||Some Cases||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None|
|Sore Throat||Some Cases||Common||Common||Uncommon / None|
|Stuffy or Runny Nose||Some Cases||Common||Common||Common|
|Headache||Uncommon / None||Common||Some Cases||Uncommon / None|
|Itchy or Watery Eyes||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None||Common||Common|
|Sneezing||Uncommon / None||Common||Common||Common|
|Stomach Pain||Uncommon / None||Some Cases||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None|
|Vomiting||Uncommon / None||Some Cases||Uncommon / None||Uncommon / None|
If you or the person you’re caring for develops these emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include:
This list is not all-inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.
If NoTest to determine if they are still contagious, they can leave home after these three things have happened:
If Tested to determine if still contagious, they can leave home after these three things have happened:
At a time where people everywhere are encouraged to stay indoors to avoid the growing pandemic of COVID-19, it is imperative that we develop creative solutions to problems like the ability to clothe, shelter and feed ourselves. One of the most self sufficient things you can do is grow your own food. We have made it easier than ever by compiling a list of 11 foods that you can regrow from leftover “cuttings” in your kitchen!
You just place the stem that is leftover in a glass bowl or jar with enough water to cover it and leave it in the sunlight. After about a two days, you will notice new growth and when this happens you can transplant your green onion into a pot or herb garden. Leeks can be grown similarly.
Lemongrass will grow just like regular grass. You just place the root that is leftover in a glass bowl or jar with enough water to cover it and leave it in the sunlight. After about a week, you will notice new growth and when this happens you can transplant your lemongrass in a pot or herb garden.
Lettuce, cabbage, and Bok Choy are relatively easy to grow from cuttings. Instead of throwing out the leftover leaves, place them in a bowl with just a small amount of water in the bottom. Keep the bowl somewhere that gets good sunlight and mist the leaves with water a couple of times each week. After 3 or 4 days, you will notice roots beginning to appear along with new leaves. When this happens you can transplant your lettuce, cabbage or wok chop in soil.
Celery is one of the easiest foods to grow from leftover cuttings. Just cut off the bottom or base of your celery and lay it in a bowl with just a bit of warm water in the bottom. Keep the bowl in direct sunlight as long as possible each day and after about a week, you will begin to see the leaves thickening and growing along the base. When this happens, you can transplant your celery in soil and wait for it to grow to full length.
Simply soak a tablespoon of the beans that you want to grow in a jar with shallow water. Leave this overnight and in the morning, drain the water off and put the beans back in the container. Cover the container with a towel overnight and rinse them the next morning. Keep doing this until you notice the sprouts begin to appear and then until they reach the size that you want. This works well with mung beans and wheat berries. You can also grow using a coca cola bottle or milk carton! Here is an example below.
You can grow a number of hot peppers from the seeds that are leftover. Just collect the seeds from your habaneros, jalapenos or any other peppers that you have on hand. Plant them in potting soil and keep in direct sunlight unless it is warm outside and then you can just plant them in your garden area. Peppers grow relatively fast and don’t require a lot of care. Once you get a new crop, just save some of the seeds for replanting again.
Peppers like to have warm roots and do well in black containers or concrete blocks.
Ginger root is very easy to grow and once you get started, you can keep your supply of ginger full. You will need to plant a spare piece of your ginger root in potting soil, making sure that the buds are facing up. Expect new shoots and new roots in about a week or so and once this happens you can pull it up and use it again.
To growing fennel, it requires that the roots are kept intact. You need about an inch of the base of the fennel to get it to regrow. Just place this base in a container with about a cup of water and leave it in direct sunlight. The windowsill is a great place to grow fennel. When the roots grow strong and you notice new green shoots coming up from the center of the base, you can transplant into soil.
Garlic is really easy to grow and can be done from just one clove. When you buy garlic, you get several cloves so just pull one off and plant it with the roots facing down in potting soil. Garlic likes plenty of direct sunlight so in warmer weather, keep it outdoors in the sun during the day. Once you notice that new shoots have established, cut the shoots back and your plant will produce a bulb. You can take part of this new bulb and plant again.
Make sure you are not submerging the cloves or they will rot. Change the water when it looks dirty, every 2 or 3 days, and your little sprouts can reach a height of ten inches! You can cut the sprouts with scissors when ready to harvest them. Garlic sprouts have a lighter flavor than garlic and are best raw.
Basil is relatively easy to regrow. You will need a stem about four inches high. Place stem in a glass of water with the leaves well above the water line. Leave the glass sitting in a bright area but not in direct sunlight. Roots should begin to form in a few days and when those roots reach a couple of inches long, you can transplant them in soil.
Cilantro can be grown from scraps as well. Just place the bottom of the stem in a glass of water and leave in a bright area, near a windowsill perhaps. When the roots grow a couple of inches long, you can transplant the cilantro into a pot and you will notice new sprigs in just a few weeks.
You can reserve the tops of turnips and regrow greens from them. Just chop off the tops of the turnips, leaving about a half-inch to an inch of the top. Place in a shallow container, add water, and put in a sunny spot. After a week, you should see some strong turnip greens. And really, all members of the turnip family (beets, carrots, parsnips) can regrow their greens this way, not just turnips.
You can cut the sprouts with scissors when ready to harvest them. Turnip leaves can be prepared exactly like spinach or its close mustard, kale, cabbage, and collards relatives, including in salads, soups, and stewed with pork and served with vinegar. The somewhat fuzzy leaves are extremely high in vitamins A, B, C, and K, folate, iron, calcium, and thiamine.
This list is not all inclusive. There are lots of other fruits and vegetables that you can regrow such as:
These items require significantly more time to grow. Trees like avocado take a minimum of five years to produce fruit! Long term they may be great investments and it is encouraged that you research how to grow and care for these as well.
At least 14 days are recommended for a self-quarantine, while the duration of a lockdown depends on the decision of a local government.
Given the likelihood that more and more people around the world will be stuck at home, preparing your home for that eventuality is an increasing concern.
Non-perishable foods, including shelf-stable beverages, sauces, pasta, pulses, rice, cereal, crackers, and dry goods, including tea, sugar, and coffee.
Basic medical supplies, including over-the-counter medications to alleviate possible symptoms – which, in mild cases, have a lot in common with the symptoms of the common cold. Medicines for fever, congestion, and cough are recommended. It is also important to keep a one-month supply of prescription medication on hand as well in case getting to a pharmacy for a refill becomes difficult.
Cleaning and hygiene supplies needed would include soaps for handwashing, bathing, laundry, and cleaning, as well as disinfectants to keep surfaces clean.
**Medical professionals have suggested that ibuprofen is not recommended for managing coronavirus symptoms. Those already taking ibuprofen for other conditions should not stop without consulting a doctor**
Also important is preparing some activities that can be undertaken within the home, whether a list of books to read or an entertainment or exercise subscription that can be used without going out.
Create a plan for meals to limit trips to the grocery store. This plan should include your household size the amount of meals per day and what will be served daily. Limiting children to eating times will help to ration snacks an limit your exposure to COVID-19
Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection have reported symptoms ranging from mild to severe respiratory illness. Symptoms generally include fever, cough and shortness of breath/difficulty breathing
At this time, the CDC believes that symptoms of COVID-19 may appear in as few as two days, or as long as 14 days, after exposure.
If you may have had contact with a person with COVID-19 or recently traveled to countries with community spread and start to experience symptoms, call your medical provider so that they can take appropriate precautions.
If you have a cough, a fever or difficulty breathing, and you are worried that you may have COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, here are recommendations from Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H., senior director of infection prevention at Johns Hopkins, on what to do, step by step.
Unless it is an emergency, to reduce your risk of catching or spreading illness, stay home if you feel sick, even if your symptoms are mild. Do not go to work, school or public places, and avoid public transportation.
If your symptoms are severe or you feel like you need medical care, call before you go to a doctor’s office, urgent care center or emergency room. Describe your symptoms over the phone.
If you have a medical emergency, call 911 and tell the dispatcher about your symptoms and recent travel history.
When you call a health care facility, you will be asked about your risks for COVID-19. Risk factors include recent travel to certain countries or areas of the U.S., or exposure to an infected person.
For instance, people calling Johns Hopkins Health System hospitals or clinics are asked:
Based on your answers to these questions, the care provider will provide instructions over the phone. You will be told if you need to be evaluated, and if so, what to do next. Based on your risk for COVID-19, your health care provider may recommend that you:
The possibility of having a contagious illness is scary, but doctors, nurses and other caregivers are learning more about COVID-19 every day. They are working together with national and international agencies to identify and provide care to patients while avoiding spread of the illness in the community.
France’s Health Minister Olivier Veran said on Twitter on Saturday for pain relief it was better to take paracetamol because over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs may worsen the coronavirus.
“The taking of anti-inflammatories [ibuprofen, cortisone] could be a factor in aggravating the infection. In case of fever, take paracetamol. If you are already taking anti-inflammatory drugs, ask your doctor’s advice,” said Veran.
Patients should choose paracetamol, also known known in the United States by the generic name acetaminophen and commonly by the brand name Tylenol, because “it will reduce the fever without counter-attacking the inflammation”, the health ministry added.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are known to be a risk for those with infectious illnesses because they tend to diminish the response of the body’s immune system.
It’s important for the public to be prepared should a COVID-19 outbreak occur in your community. To limit the spread of infection, you should:
Follow these important tips to help prepare to respond to this public health threat.
Social distancing is an infection control action that public health officials take to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. The goal is for people to avoid close contact with each other and stay six feet apart.
Simply put, avoiding close contact with others. This means no mass gatherings or unnecessary travel to places where people may congregate. If you absolutely must be out in public, maintain a six-foot radius of space.
In an effort to slow the spread of COVID-19, one important thing we can all do is practice social distancing.
Social distancing can slow down the spread of COVID-19 by giving it fewer opportunities to jump from person to person.
Scientists estimate that one person infected with the coronavirus will infect another 3.3 people, on average. The higher that number (known as the reproductive number), the faster a virus spreads.
Several factors influence the reproductive number, including how contagious the virus is, how susceptible people are, how many times people interact with each other, and how long those interactions last. Social distancing aims to reduce the last two items on that list, which would in turn reduce the reproductive number and slow a disease’s spread, said Dr. Jeffrey Martin, an infectious diseases epidemiologist at UC San Francisco.
Self-quarantine and self-isolation are specific forms of social distancing.
Self-quarantine is when you don’t necessarily feel ill, but as a precaution, separate yourself from others. This is usually because there’s a good chance you’ve been exposed to a disease. Self-isolation is when you actually have symptoms and don’t want to get other people sick. In the case of COVID-19, both should last about 14 days, enough time for any potential symptoms to manifest in an environment where the virus can’t infect other people.
SCIENCECoronavirus self-quarantine: When and how to do it March 13, 2020
If you can work from home, you should. Don’t gather in shared public spaces or at public events, like gyms, restaurants, festivals or concerts. Avoid cruises and nonessential travel, particularly if you’re at higher risk of getting very sick from the disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says.
If you absolutely have to get prepared food, don’t eat in —use the takeout window or have it delivered. Pay using your debit or credit card over the phone when possible for delivery.
If you have to go to the store for groceries or other essentials, try to go during “off-peak hours.” While you’re there, maintain a six-foot distance between yourself and other people. That will lessen the chance that you’ll catch the virus from droplets spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. Also, be sure to clean shared surfaces before and after you come into contact with them.
I still need to go to work. Is it OK to take my child to day care?
Try to find a day care setting with a small number of kids, don’t send them to day care if they’re sick. Make sure the day care provider will be using best practices and wiping down all of the toys often, with disinfecting cleaners such as Clorox wipes or a bleach solution. Evidence suggests that the coronavirus can live on surfaces like plastic for up to 72 hours.
Are play dates OK?
It is best to put off playdates for now. Just because someone looks well, doesn’t mean they can’t transmit the COVID-19.
What’s more, symptoms of COVID-19 on average take five days to show up from the time of infection — but a person can still pass it on to other people during that time. So while it might be tempting to have one or two kids over, don’t do it, says Dr. Asaf Bitton, a primary care physician and public health researcher affiliated with Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
Dr. Jenny Radesky, a developmental behavioral pediatrician at the University of Michigan, says the goal is for parents to limit exposure, period. “My guidance right now to families is, as much as possible, do not have your kids in other people’s houses. Do not have other people’s kids in your house. There are times where for child care arrangements or for absolute necessity, you need to have one or two or more kids together. But if at all possible, really just keep kids at home.”
What about playing outside with other kids or going to the park?
If you allow your children outside to play with other children, make sure the children keep at least 6 feet of distance from other children (which can be very hard for younger children).
And for adults, what about having close friends over to visit?
The new CDC guidance is to avoid social visits for now.
Can I travel? I’m seeing really cheap airfares now.
The CDC is telling people to avoid discretionary travel. You should be minimizing contact with others outside your immediate household.
I had a doctor’s visit scheduled months ago. Should I still go?
If it’s a nonessential visit to a doctor or dentist, reschedule it, Birx said Tuesday during a White House press conference. “Things that don’t need to be done over the next two weeks, don’t get it done. If you’re a person with an elective surgery, you don’t want to go into a hospital right now.” She urged people to “be responsible” to free up hospital beds and space.
I need to go to the grocery store. How do I do that in a way that’s safest for me and others?
This counts as an essential trip, of course. But try going to the grocery store during off-peak hours, when it’s less likely to be crowded, says Dr. Sean O’Leary, an assistant professor of pediatrics and infectious diseases at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.
You can leave your house, just minimize your interactions with other people. Use this time for activities such as: going for walks, gardening or exercise.
There are social-distancing measures that organizations can take in places where community spread of a virus is minimal to moderate, the CDC says.
Utilize technology! Video and phone chat with friends and loved ones.
Offer support by sharing contact information or dropping food or goods off to neighbors who might not be able to go out themselves.